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Thursday 9 April 2015

The Concept of Duality in World Religions

You have these two eyes. These two eyes for the Taoist are very significant. Only modern science has been able to see the truth of it. These two eyes are not only the visible eyes. These two eyes represent the male and the female in you. Now modern science says that the brain of man is divided into two hemispheres, and one hemisphere is male, the other is female. The right side of your mind is feminine, and the left side is masculine. So your one eye represents the male in you, and your other eye represents the female in you. And when your male and female meet inside you, that meeting is what is called 'heaven' -- that meeting, that inner communion of your male and female.

Jesus says, 'When your two eyes become one there will be light.' He is talking like a Taoist alchemist. When your two eyes become one, there will be light. When your two eyes become one -- when your male and female disappear into each other -- that is the ultimate orgasmic experience. What you feel making love to a woman or to a man is only a glimpse of it, a very fleeting glimpse. It is so momentary that by the time you become aware of it, it is already gone. You become aware of it only in the past, it is so fleeting. But it is a glimpse, a glimpse of the meeting of the man and the woman. This is an exterior meeting. It is a miracle that it happens even for a single moment, but there is a deep possibility. And that has been the work of Tantra, Tao, Yoga, and all the great secret teachings of the world: to help you become aware of your feminine and your masculine inside -- what tantrikas call Shiva and Shakti, and what Taoists call 'yin' and 'yang'. The polarity, the positive and negative in you, the day and night in you -- they have to meet there.


But unless they become one you will not become aware of it. But you cannot see it unless they become one, then it is released. Then there is a great explosion of light. Zarathustra calls it 'explosion of fire'. Lao Tzu calls it 'explosion of light'. It is the same.

आप इन दो आँखें है। ताओवादी के लिए ये दो आँखें बहुत महत्वपूर्ण हैं। केवल आधुनिक विज्ञान इसके बारे में सच्चाई को देखने में सक्षम हो गया है। ये दो आँखें नहीं ही दिखाई आंखें हैं। ये दो आँखें पुरुष और आप में महिला प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं। अब आधुनिक विज्ञान आदमी के मस्तिष्क दो गोलार्द्धों में विभाजित है कि कहते हैं, और एक गोलार्द्ध अन्य महिला है, पुरुष है। अपने मन के दाईं ओर स्त्री है, और बाईं ओर संज्ञा है। तो अपनी एक आंख आप में पुरुष का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है, और अपने अन्य आंख आप में महिला का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है। और अपने पुरुष और आप के अंदर महिला मिलते हैं, उस बैठक 'स्वर्ग' क्या कहा जाता है - जब कि इस बैठक में अपने पुरुष और महिला की कि भीतरी ऐक्य।

'यीशु अपने दो आँखों से एक बन जब प्रकाश हो जाएगा।' कहते हैं, उन्होंने कहा कि एक कीमियागर की तरह बात कर रही है। अपने दो आँखों से एक हो जाते हैं, प्रकाश हो जाएगा। अपने दो आँखों से एक हो जाते हैं - अपने पुरुष और महिला एक दूसरे में गायब हो जाते हैं जब - कि परम कामोन्माद अनुभव है। क्या आप एक औरत के लिए या एक आदमी को प्यार करने लग रहा है केवल यह की एक झलक, एक बहुत ही क्षणभंगुर झलक है। यह आपको इसके बारे में पता बनने के समय से, यह पहले से ही चला जाता है, ताकि क्षणिक है। आप केवल अतीत में इसकी जानकारी हो, यह तो क्षणभंगुर है। लेकिन यह एक झलक, आदमी और औरत की बैठक की एक झलक है।

यह एक बाहरी बैठक हो रही है। यह भी एक पल के लिए ऐसा होता है कि एक चमत्कार है, लेकिन एक गहरी संभावना है। और कहा कि तंत्र, ताओ, योग का काम किया गया है, और दुनिया के सभी महान रहस्य शिक्षाओं: यदि आप अपने स्त्री और अपने अंदर संज्ञा के बारे में पता बनने में मदद करने के लिए - क्या तांत्रिकों कॉल शिव और शक्ति, और क्या यिन 'कॉल 'और' यांग '। ध्रुवता, आप में सकारात्मक और आप में नकारात्मक, दिन और रात - वे वहाँ से मिलने के लिए है। स्वर्ग के प्रकाश नहीं देखा जा सकता। आईटी दो आँखों में निहित है।

वे एक हो जाते हैं लेकिन जब तक आप इसके बारे में पता नहीं बन जाएगा। आईटी दो आँखों में निहित है। वे तो इसे जारी किया है, एक हो जाते हैं लेकिन जब तक आप यह नहीं देख सकते हैं। तब प्रकाश का एक बड़ा विस्फोट है। जरथुस्त्र 'आग के विस्फोट' यह कहता है। लाओत्से 'प्रकाश का विस्फोट' यह कहता है। यह एक ही है।

Saturday 21 February 2015

A List of Indian Mathematical Influences on Greece in Scriptures

There are numerous examples of interaction between mathematicians and scientists of Ancient India, Arabia and Greece. Here is a list of some of them, along with the famous mathematicians referred to in the stories.

The Lilavati is a treatise on arithmetic and algebra written by Bhaskaracharya in A.D. 1150. It is a part of his bigger mathematical work Siddhanta-Shiromani. Lilavati was translated into Persian by Akbar’s courtier, Faizi. Th Lilavati and its translation include many stories of merchants and travelers from Lanka to Ayodhya carrying treatises of science across regions.

Aryabhata, a premier Indian mathematician and astronomer, born in A.D. 476, wrote at the age of 23 his book called Aryabhata- Tantra in Sanskrit when he was residing at Kusumapura or Patna. He discovered the diurnal motion of the earth causing the division of time into night and day. Long before the time of Copernicus he discovered the truth that the earth moves round the sun. He also knew the real reason for the eclipses of the sun and the moon, that the moon and other planets have no light of their own and are illuminated with the reflected light of the sun and that the earth and other planets move round the sun along elliptical ways.

Indeed, Sanskrit literature tells many more stories. The Panchatantra is replete with stories of travelling scientists, and the two epics the Mahabharat and Ramayana also have their share of examples. Tulsidas's Ramcharitmanas faithfully copies the original and reproduces these incidents, though later versions of the epics such as Kamban's Tamil Ramayana, and modern-day versions such as Devdutt's Sita, do not.

Aryadeva, a Buddhist author who flourished in the second century A.D., was one of the earliest exponents of the Mahayana form of Buddhism. In his histories of Hindu and Buddhist icons, he lists one of the Boddhisattvas as being a mathematician who taught at Takshila and Varanasi, whose students included the Greeks. He speaks of how they visited Aryavarta, literally meaning the territory inhabited by the Aryans. In the Institute of Manu (c. A.D. 200) the term is applied to the whole space of northern India between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas from sea to sea. When exactly this region came to be occupied by the Aryans has not been fixed with any precision. It must have been many centuries later than the Rig Vedic Age (c. 2000 B.C.) when the Aryans occupied Afghanistan and the Panjab only. The migration eastward and occupation of the whole of Aryavarta must have taken many centuries after the Aryans had made their first establishment in the Punjab.

Among Islamic writers, Asad Khan, who was the minister of Ibrahim Adil Shah I, Sultan of Bijapur (1535-57) and was a very capable administrator and diplomat, also records European mathematicians visiting the courts of Akbar and the southern Chola kings. His greatest achievement was a diplomatic victory won in 1543. In that year the sultans of Ahmadnagar and Golkunda entered into an alliance with the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar with a view to attacking Bijapur. Asad Khan concluded peace separately with Ahmadnagar and Vijayanagar and thus broke up the coalition. Bijapur was saved for the time. Asad Khan, being the Prime Minister for many years of Emperor Aurangazeb had access to some of the historical documents preserved in the Mughal court.

Tuesday 10 February 2015

Education Through Stories: Asian History

After examining the five great systems of Philosophy separately, they combined them in sets of two and three according to their affinity and range, and constructed on them their four great systems of Religion – Vaishnavism, Saivism, Buddhism, and Jainism, with Sakti worship as a connecting link between all. An account of this has been given earlier. All the ancient Sacred Books of the Hindus are an attempt to embody the truths of Science in systems of Philosophy and Religion in different forms, referring them to the daily life of the average man. The gods of the Vedas personify the five great creative energies of life, separately and together, at different stages of their evolution; the Brahmanas express the same idea in terms of creative and selfless Action or Sacrifice: the Upanishads and the systems of Philosophy deal with the same subject more directly; and the Puranas and the Epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata represent them in Story form. 

In the Bhagavad Gita, the most sacred book for the Hindu way of life, Bhagwan Krishna is quoted as saying "I am the great epic among the stories," a "wink" at the manner of education prevalent in Idnia at the time. These epics cover the whole range of human thought, from Physics to Metaphysics, from pure Monism of God to qualified Monism, Dualism, Agnosticism, and Atheism; and from the Soul of Man to his Buddhi, Mind, and the Senses of Knowledge and Action. Indeed, it would be difficult to conceive of anything outside this range, and this would explain the statement in the Mahabharata, "That which is in it, is elsewhere. That which does not occur here, occurs nowhere else." 

But this was not a mere theory or abstract speculation; it was intended to bear on the life and conduct of the average man. All of us are not at the same stage of evolution and development. There are five great creative energies in Man, from the Soul to the Senses, and each of us has more of the one or the other specially defined. Many of us are at the stage of the Senses and see all things in their light; others are at the Mind stage and can think; some, however, are at the Buddhi stage, with doubts resolved and mind at peace; while a few are at the Soul stage, ever acting in a spirit of Sacrifice, undisturbed by change, and always happy at heart. Each of us can understand the problem of life in the light of his own character and the stage of his evolution and development; and the five systems of Philosophy and their corresponding Religions, bearing as they do on the five great creative energies of life, provide for each individual an ideal and a goal according to his peculiar point of view. 

The ultimate Truth is indeed one, conceived in the light of one God, one Nature, one Soul, and one Law of life, viz., Sacrifice; but we have to rise by stages to grasp this Truth. This is the peculiarly sublime character of the ancient systems of thought, giving to each individual an ideal according to his stage of development and yet comprehending the whole. They are not complete or rival systems, as some imagine, but different stages and different landmarks in our study of the problem of life, each leading to the other, until we attain to the ultimate Truth, and view all things in the light of God and the Soul. That is Vedanta, the essence of all Knowledge, even as the word implies, when we see all life as perpetual Sacrifice, and the whole universe eternally happy and good.

Saturday 7 February 2015

The Story of Kumbha and Chudala

The Kumbha Mela occurs once every three years, and cycles over four venues over a period of twelve years. While these venues are all on the confluences of important rivers, there is a legend relating to how these four places were selected and why the kumbha mela occurs once every twelve years in these places. 

Once, on returning to the forest, Chudala found her husband in samadhi, a state of trance, with his body completely emaciated. Although she knew that this state signified an inner ripening, as a seed hardens within a shrivelling, drying fruit, she felt harrowed by the spectacle. She tried to awaken him, but could not. She went back to the capital and returned a few days later, to find him still in samadhi. 

At this she created with her subtle breath simha nada, that is, a roar sounding like a lion that reached to the skies and reverberated through the forests, frightening wild animals into a stampede. The king’s samadhi, however, remained undisturbed. Chudala was pleased, but at the same time she wanted to awaken him. She shook him vigorously, but it was like shaking dead wood. She now tried a last remedy. She left her own body and transmigrated into his and awoke him from within. He opened his eyes little by little. Chudala went back to her own body and, assuming again the form of Kumbha, sat at a distance away and sang the Santa tune, that rare melody, and it soothed and pleased the king as he gradually came back to the mundane world. 
Kumbha said, “You were in deep meditation and I am pleased with your development. Do you feel assured that you will never more be affected by kama, krodha, and moha?” “Yes,” said Sikhi-Dhvaja. “I am above all passions now. I have complete confidence in myself. I feel my soul pervading the entire universe. I find myself in a state of bliss at all times.” Kumbha said, “You have nothing to fear any more. Now let us travel and see the world.” 
 They visited different countries, forests, and deserts. When they relaxed in some ideal romantic surrounding, Chudala felt an overwhelming love for her husband and desired his company as a woman. But she could not reveal herself to him yet without spoiling the fruits of their labours. Kumbha took leave of the king on the pretext of having to visit the world of the god Indra on an urgent summons and, as Chudala, went back to the capital to attend to state matters; she returned to him in two days, as Kumbha, but with a sad face. “I notice a lack of joy in your face,” said Sikhi-Dhvaja. “Something has, perhaps, made you unhappy. May I know what it is?” 
 Kumbha said, “A dreadful thing has happened to me. You are, after all, a friend of mine and I cannot hide anything from you. While returning from Indra Loka I met the sage Durvasa. He was wearing rather flashy robes, as it seemed to me, and I could not help cracking a joke with him. I said, ‘O Sage, you are dressed like a damsel going in search of her lover. How is that?’ I should not have joked with a person like Durvasa, whose bad temper is known in all the worlds. His eyes blazed with anger and he said, ‘Young fellow, you are frivolous and silly. Normally I would not have noticed you, but today you have forced yourself on my attention and uttered insulting words. For this you are going to pay a price. Since damsels seem to be so much on your mind, you shall be transformed into a damsel at sunset each day and regain your manhood at daybreak, for the rest of your life,’ and he was gone after uttering this curse. Now what shall I do?”
“You have helped me through my troubled times,” the king said. “It will be my turn to help you now. Utter the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra (mp3). Do not worry. Nothing is lost by this curse. I shall always treat you as my guru and friend, whatever may be your form.” “It is a great consolation that you will not mind it,” said Kumbha. “Let nothing worry you,” said the king, and he elaborated a philosophy of acceptance. As the evening wore on and dusk came, Kumbha excused himself from continuing in the presence of the king. He half withdrew behind a partition and cried pathetically, “O King, the curse is taking effect. Long tresses have appeared on my head, with flowers and scent.” Unperturbed by this information, the king continued his meditation. 
“Where there was a flat chest,” began Kumbha—“I am shy to mention it, but you are my friend—breasts, firm and round, have appeared.” “Yes, all that must happen as expected,” said the king without any emotion, coldly. “Ornaments have appeared, sparkling with gems, around my neck. I wish you could see me.” “It is all a part of the mask,” said Sikhi-Dhvaja. “What do the details matter? All that will last until the morning. You will get used to the change.” “My clothes have grown longer and drape me.” “You should have expected it.” “My voice has changed, do you not notice it?” “Yes, I do. Naturally you should have the appropriate voice for your changed state,” the king said without turning. “My hips have grown wider, and—oh, friend, this is indeed frightening—I am a complete woman now. I am no longer Kumbha. I repeat, I am a complete woman now. May I come before you?” “Certainly, I never told you to go into concealment.” And now Chudala emerged as a woman of great beauty. The king looked on this vision unemotionally. 
She said, “My name is Madanika.” “Yes?” said the king without any agitation. As the night advanced, Madanika came closer to the king and put her arm around his neck. “Be my husband. If you don’t take me someone else will, for that is the curse. What is wrong in your becoming my husband every night?” The king agreed, for it seemed to him all the same, whatever he did. She said, “Let us marry this very minute, since this is an especially auspicious night. Let us spend the night as husband and wife.”
At that very hour they were married according to Gandharva rites, and that night and the following nights enjoyed the utmost conjugal bliss. She found that the king, though responsive, remained untouched by any experience. He took no initiative at any stage, although he denied her nothing when she made a demand on him as a wife. Chudala felt happy that her husband had come through the first test successfully.

Tuesday 3 February 2015

Arvind Kejriwal releases open letter to India

Arvind Kejriwal, head of the Aam Admi Party (AAP) has released a letter speaking of how fence-sitting will get no one anywhere.

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Friday 30 January 2015

Indian government and schools may induct yoga in daily routine

Various governmental bodies and schools are making yoga an official part of daily proceedings, in an attempt to create a more holistic environment for work and education.

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Childhood anxiety can cause physical changes to brain

A new study from the Yale Child Study Center shows that anxiety isn't just the realm of adulthood. Preschoolers who suffer from anxiety could end up with permanent changes to the physical structure of the brain.

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Sunday 11 January 2015

Thanjavur Brihadeeswara Temple

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Saturday 10 January 2015

Government inaugurates Dandi Kutir, Gandhi museum

The Gujarat government inaugurated the Dandi Kutir, a museum commemorating the Mahatma's life, which is shaped like a salt mound.

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Friday 9 January 2015

Science and Religion in Ancient India

Ancient Indian science has the curious characteristic that is is encoded in the form of a story many times. For example, many of the stories in the Puranas are actually dialectical expositions of science. So too with the epics, the Vedas and the Upanishads.

In particular, the Mahabharata is a magnificent attempt to explain all ancient systems of Philosophy and Religion in Story form. There is, perhaps, in all literature no better way of communicating our ideas to the average man than through a Story. We are all like children in this respect, and take peculiar delight in reading or hearing Stories, and human nature has not changed since the dawn of civilization. 

The allegory and fable of olden times had this end in view, and we yet believe that the modern Novel may have a moral purpose too. But every student of literature knows how difficult it is to convey moral and religious truths in a continuous Story form, and the attempt of Spenser in his Faerie Queene proves how easy it is to fail. But the difficulties, though great, are not insurmountable, and it would be a glorious consummation of the Poet's art if he can succeed in his task; the very opening Chapter of the Epic we are told that it is a Story based on the Sacred Books of the Hindus, from the Vedas to the Puranas and has to be understood in their light; and the following pages will show how far this is literally true. The ancients brought down Philosophy and Religion from their empyrean heights to this Earth by means of their art of Story; but the process is not without danger peculiar to the method; for in the interest of the Story the original Philosophy may easily be forgotten.

Many modern masters have spoken of India's history that is not recorded in written form. They speak of the mystical and the intangible. For example, a famous quotation of Osho Rajneesh says: Only silence communicates the truth as it is. This is teh precept that seems to have been followed by the ancient Indian scientists. Sadhguru, Ramdev and Swami Vivekananda have all made similar statements.

We have learnt to think of the Mahabharata as a Story to: the exclusion of almost everything else, and it seems difficult for the average man to realize that it can be a picture of Philosophy and Religion too. No­ one can deny that it is an extraordinary work, conceived as a pure Story, clear and consistent from beginning to end, the narrative interesting in each part as well as the whole, and the characters all distinctly defined. Indeed, in the pure art of plot-­construction, it is a marvel of the "Poet's art, and there is no work to compare with it in point of volume and range in the whole world. That it is to this day the most popular of. all religious Stories in India, and is daily recited in millions.: of homes is a -tribute to the Story-teller's art; and there are many who love to think of it as a dream of India's glory in the past, a romance. of love and life, an Epic of great and heroic deeds of valour and war. 

That it has succeeded as a Story, no one can deny; but whether it can also be interpret d.; as a picture of all systems of Philosophy and Religion by means of the ancient method of Letter analysis, the reader can occupy himself or herself with the perusal of the pages and judge for himself. There we see how Man can rise from Atheism and Agnosticism to pure belief in God through the idea of Sacrifice; but when he abandons this Sacrifice, he drops down to Agnosticism once more. Thus it is a complete cycle of human thought and a wonderful picture of life. In addition to this it might be many more things too, a treatise on History and Politics, as some believe, or on Astronomy and Medicine as we are told in the Introductory Chapter of the Epic. 

But above all it is a picture of all systems of Philosophy and Religion, an Encyclopedia of all knowledge of the ancients; and it offers as complete a solution of the problems of life as man can think. That was its use in the past, that is its use today, and that is likely to be its use in the time to come.

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