Gangas, the dynasty of the—ruled over the greater part of Mysore from the second to the eleventh century of the Christian era. The first ruler, Konganivarma, distinguished himself in many battles and carved out a large kingdom for himself. His successors played an important part in the wars amongst the southern Indian kings and were sometimes under the suzerainty of the Pallavas. The Ganga kings of the tenth century were zealous patrons of Jainism. In A.D. 983 was executed the colossal statue of Gomata, 564 feet high, made to the order of Chamunda Rai, minister of the Ganga king Rasamalla IV, at Sravana Belgola. The power of the Gangas was destroyed by Vishnuvardhana (c. A.D. 1110-41) in the battle of Talaked.

Gangas, the Eastern—a branch of the Gangas of Mysore, ruled over Kalinga or Orissa. The founder of the dynasty was Vajrahasta whose son and successor Rajaraja I married Rajasundari, a daughter of Rajendra Choladeva II (A.D. 1070-1118). This union greatly added to the strength of the dynasty and enabled Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078-1148) the son of Rajaraja I, to extend his kingdom northwards. He ruled for seventy years and his kingdom included part of the Northern Gircars of Madras. He had a strong navy and repeatedly attacked the southern frontier of Bengal. Anantavarman was succeeded by his four sons who, one after another, ruled for a total period of sixty years. During this period the Muhammadans began their aggressions which the Eastern Ganga kings could not check. Nine generations of kings followed the four sons of Anantavarman until at last the last of them, Narasimha IV, who ruled from 1384 to 1402, was overthrown by the Muhammadans. The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of art. The present temple of Jagannath at Puri (Ori&a) and the temple of Rajarajeswara at Mukhalingam (Orissa) are the two most remarkable extant monuments of the Eastern Gangas who designed their temples on a grand scale that lias remained unsurpassed anywhere else in India.

In the middle of the eleventh century the Eastern Ganga dynasty established its rule in Orissa and continued to rule till 1434 when it was overthrown by Kapilendra. The most famous king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty was Anantavarman Chodaganga who ruled from A.D. 1076 to 1148 and built the present Jagannatha Temple at Puri. The Eastern Ganga kings upheld the independence of Orissa against the Muhammadan raids from northern India as well as against the attacks of the Bahmani sultans on the south.

Anantavarman Choda Ganga—the most notable king belonging to the Eastern Ganga dynasty, ruled over Kalinga for seventy- one years (A.D. 1076-1147) and at one time ruled over a kingdom extending from the Ganges to the Godavari. He built the temple ofJagannath at Puri as well as the great terqple of the Sun-God at Konarak in Puri District in Orissa. He was a great patron of Hindu religion and of Sanskrit and Telugu literatures.

Bhanudeva—a king of the Ganga dynasty, ruled over Orissa on the eve of Alauddin’s invasion of the Deccan. He was swept away by the onrush of the Muslim conquest in about A.D. 1294.

Chamunda Raja—was a minister of a king of the Ganga dynasty who ruled over Mysore. By his order was built a colossal statue of Gomata, 56 feet in height, wrought out of a block of gneiss on the top of a hill at Sravana Belgola. The statue is unrivalled in the world for its daring conception and gigantic dimensions.

Kapilendra (or Kapileswara)—a king who overthrew the Ganga dynasty of Orissa in about 1453, ruled till 1470. He was a very able and vigorous person who restored the prestige of Orissa by suppressing the rebels within the state and by extending his dominions from the Ganges to the Kaveri. He thus founded a new dynasty of kings in Orissa, the more prominent of whom were Purushottama (q.v.) (A.D. 1470-97) and his son Pistaparudra (1497-1540). In about A.D. 1541 the dynasty of Kapilendra was overthrown by the Bhoi dynasty. offers more information on the Konark Sun Temple and the other temples of the Ganga dynasty kings.